Erdogan has said the killing was ordered by the highest level of Saudi leadership but probably not by King Salman, putting the spotlight instead on the 33-year-old crown prince.
The killing of Khashoggi, a Washington Post columnist and a vocal critic of Saudi leadership, has set off a firestorm of demands from USA lawmakers for a strong response to the kingdom as the White House has been reluctant to assign blame to the crown prince. Trump administration officials on Sunday continued to stress that point and emphasised the importance of the United States' maintaining a close relationship with Saudi Arabia.
Meanwhile Secretary of State Mike Pompeo has told CNN that he saw all the intelligence held by the U.S. on the killing and said there was no direct evidence linking Prince Mohammed to the murder.
Pompeo reiterated his insistence that there was no "direct evidence" that Saudi Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman (better known as MBS) ordered the killing of Khashoggi, who lived in the USA and wrote for The Washington Post.
"I have read every piece of intelligence that is in the possession of the United States government", Secretary of State Mike Pompeo said in an interview with CNN on Saturday, "and when it is done, when you complete that analysis, there's no direct evidence linking him to the murder of Jamal Khashoggi".
Saudi Arabia has said that 21 people are in custody and vowed to keep probing the killing of Khashoggi, who was killed and dismembered after visiting the kingdom's Istanbul consulate to handle paperwork for his planned wedding.
But Bob Corker, the outgoing Republican chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, said in an interview published on Friday that the USA needed to rein in Prince Mohammed, who was "out of control".
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Erdogan said the Saudis have refused to help Turkish prosecutors with information on the whereabouts of Khashoggi's body and the identities of accomplices said to have supported the visiting Saudi hit squad.
Canada has been outspoken on human rights in Saudi Arabia, which has retaliated by breaking off diplomatic relations and vowing to end trade.
Jamal Khashoggi went missing after entering the Saudi Consulate in Istanbul on October 2. "But his own officials have admitted that this was a planned operation".
"We have evidence that Saudi journalist Khashoggi was killed in 7.5 minutes, we shared that evidence with all countries who demanded", he said.
Mrs May shook hands with the Saudi prince, who was also berated by French president Emmanuel Macron in a terse conversation captured on video.
Erdogan said that only one G20 leader - Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau - raised the journalist's killing in the full summit. Al-Qahtani was sanctioned by the White House last month for his involvement. Russian Federation and Iran back President Bashar al-Assad in Syria's civil war, while Saudi Arabia along with Western countries have backed some rebel groups.